Primary Embossing Manufacturing Dates

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This is an approximate and incomplete list of dates that Primary Embossings were manufactured. If you can fill in some of the missing information, or correct mistakes, please do so!

  • The Primary Embossing and Country are mostly from John & Carol McDougald's Insulators A History and Guide to North American Glass Pintype Insulators.
  • The Category indicates whether this indicates a Manufacturer, Supply House, Trade Name, Style or Unknown.
  • The Start Date and End Date have three notations
    • ">" which indicates the date is as specified or after
    • "<" which indicates the date is as specified or before
    • "~" which indicates the date is approximately
  • The Description gives more details about the primary embossing.
  • The References state where this information came from

Primary Embossing Category Country Description Start Date End Date References
A.T.& T.CO.CustomerU.S.A.American Telephone & Telegraph Company18851915McD, p149
A.U.CustomerU.S.A.American Union. Produced by both Hemingray and Brookfield   
AM.INSULATOR CO.ManufacturerU.S.A.Probably a Manufacterer, not supply house. They were produced under some sort of arrangement at the American Iron Glass Pipe and Plate Co in Haverhill, Mass., but Am. Ins. Co. was a glass company responsible for producing insulators, not a telegraph supply house. And not all the evidence is 100% convincing. For one thing, American was around at least as early as mid-1883, while the Iron glass works wasn't in operation until December of 1884. That's a long time to be in business and not deliver any products to your customers.18831886McD, p37
AM.TEL.& TEL.CO.CustomerU.S.A.American Telephone & Telegraph Company18851915McD, p149
ARMSTRONGManufacturerU.S.A.Armstrong19461969McD, p138
AYALAManufacturerMexicoprobably a small family glass works (Mexican)   
BManufacturerU.S.A.Brookfield19021922McD, p24
B & OCustomerU.S.A.Baltimore & Ohio Railway   
B.E.L.CO.UnknownU.S.A.Possibly B??? Electrical Light Co., in which case it would be a customer   
B.F.G.CO.ManufacturerU.S.A.Beaver Falls Glass Company18691879McD, p106
B.G.M.CO.ManufacturerU.S.A.Baltimore Glass Manufacturing Company18961903McD, p29
B.T.C.CustomerCanadaBell Telephone Canada  McD, p149
BARCLAYStyleU.S.A.Barclay's Patent   
BEAL'SStyleU.S.A.Beal's Patent   
BIRMINGHAMUnknownU.S.A.possibly Birmingham, Alabama. Most agree these appear to be Lynchburg products.   
BOSTON BOTTLE WORKSManufacturerU.S.A.Boston Bottle Works18711877McD, p32
BROOKE'SManufacturerU.S.A.Depends on if it's the Brooke's Patent insulators or the Ellenville ones that say ""Homer Brooke's Pat. Aug. 14, 1883. Homer Brooke patented a glass press 1/25/1870, which was purchased by Brookfield. The 8/14/1883 date refers to a patent issued to Matthew Johnson. Apparently Johnson and Brooke were both influential at the Ellenville NY glass co and that's where those insulators come from (according to Ray Klingensmith.)   
BROOKFIELDManufacturerU.S.A.Brookfield18691921McD, p24
C.& P.TEL.CO.CustomerU.S.A.Chesapeake & Potomac Telephone Company1880 McD, p150
C.D.& P.TEL.CO.CustomerU.S.A.Central District & Printing Telegraph Company18741918McD, p150
C.E.L.CO.CustomerU.S.A.Cambridge Electric Light Co, user (some say California Electric Light Co, but the insulators bear all the hallmarks of Pennycuick, a Boston manufacturer. Plus, early collectors claim these were extensively used in Cambridge and the Boston area, and very few have turned up in California.)18851900McD, p58
C.E.W.Supply HouseU.S.A.California Electrical Works. This was a supply house, and most likely were produced by local glass co; some insist that CEW actually owned their own glass works, but there's scant evidence to that effect. Same thing for EC&M, which was CEW's predecessor.18771908McD, p86
C.G.I.CO.ManufacturerU.S.A.California Glass Insulator Company19121916McD, p90
C.N.R.CustomerCanadaCanadian Northern Railway   
C.P.R.CustomerCanadaCanadian Pacific Railway   
CABLEStyleU.S.A.Produced by Brookfield, possibly Hemingray, probably Oakman.   
CAL.ELEC.WORKSSupply HouseU.S.A.California Electrical Works. See C.E.W.18771908McD, p86
CALIFORNIAManufacturerU.S.A.See C.G.I.19121916McD, p90
CANADACustomerCanadaBell Telephone Company of Canada  McD, p149
CANADIAN PACIFIC RY.CO.CustomerCanadaCanadian Pacific Railway Company   
CHAMBERSStyleU.S.A.Produced by Hemingray   
CHESTERSupply HouseU.S.A.Charles T. & J. N. Chester, NYC   
CHICAGO INSULATING CO.ManufacturerU.S.A.but probably produced in a larger glass works18931894McD, p101
CIA COMERCIALCustomerMexicoEricsson was an early manufacturer of telephones. These were probably produced in Mexico for the local Ericsson distributor. (full name is Compan~ia Commercial Ericsson, Sociedad Anonimo)   
CIA TELEFONICACustomerMexicoprobably user (Mexican)   
CIN COMCustomerCuba    
CITY FIRE ALARMCustomerU.S.A.for Fall River, Massachusetts19001915McD, p59
CLIMAXStyleU.S.A.Manufactured by Brookfield   
COLUMBIAStyleU.S.A.Produced by Oakman, Brookfield, and Hemingray   
COMBINATION SAFETYStyleU.S.A.Produced by Brookfield   
CONVERSEStyleU.S.A.Produced by Hemingray, possibly Brookfield   
CRIMSAManufacturerMexicoProbably manufacturer, Mexican   
CRISOL TEXCOCOManufacturerMexico    
CROWNStyleU.S.A.probably produced by Brookfield   
CUTTERStyleU.S.A.Cutter Tree Insulators   
DERFUnknownMexicoProbably supply house   
DERFLINGHERUnknownMexicoProbably supply house   
DIAMONDManufacturerCanadaDiamond18901913McD, p154
DIAMOND PManufacturerU.S.A.Diamond P18851895McD, p56
DOMINIONManufacturerCanadaDominion Glass Company19131967McD, p155
DRY SPOT INSULATORStyleU.S.A.Produced by Whitall Tatum   
DUQUESNEManufacturerU.S.A.Duquesne Glass Company18851895~McD, p108
DWIGHTStyleU.S.A.Probably produced by Brookfield18921919McD, p156
E.C.& M.CO.Supply HouseU.S.A.Electrical Construction & Maintenance Company18701880McD, p84
E.D.R.CustomerCanadaEdmonton Dunvegan Railway19071921McD, p158
E.L.CO.Supply HouseU.S.A.Probably Edwin Lewis Company18901910McD, p58
E.R.CustomerU.S.A.Erie Railway   
E.R.W.CustomerU.S.A.Erie Railway1861  
E.S.B.CO. U.S.A.    
E.S.G.CO. U.S.A.    
E.S.S.CO.Supply HouseU.S.A.Probably Electrical Service Supplies Company   
ELECTRICAL SUPPLY CO.Supply HouseU.S.A.Electrical Supply Company18851893McD, p103
EMMINGER'SStyleU.S.A.Probably by Beaver Falls Glass & Paisley   
ERICSSONSupply HouseMexicoSee CIA Commercial Ericsson   
F.F.C.C.N.DE M.CustomerMexicoFerrocariles Nacionales de Mexico, user. Natinal Mexican Railroad. FFCC is a common Spanish abbreviation for railroad.   
FALL RIVERCustomerU.S.A.City of Fall River, Massachusetts19001915McD, p59
FISHERSupply HouseU.S.A.Fisher Electrical Works. George Fisher was the patent holder on the design.   
FT.W.E.CO.Supply HouseU.S.A.Fort Wayne (Indiana) Electic Company   
G.E.CO.Supply HouseU.S.A.General Electric. Produced by Brookfield, Hemingray, and perhaps others.18921899McD, p145
G.N.W.TEL.CO.CustomerCanadaGreat Nortwestern Telegraph Company1880 McD, p158
G.P.R.UnknownCanadaProbably a small Canadian railway, or a misprint of CPR   
G.T.P.TEL.CO.CustomerCanadaGrand Trunk Pacific Telegraph Company19061928McD, p158
GAYNERManufacturerU.S.A.Gayner19201923McD, p115
GOODManufacturerU.S.A.R. Good, Denver Colorado18971899McD, p95
GREAT NORTHWESTERNCustomerCanadaGreat Northwestern   
GREGORYStyleU.S.A.F. W. Gregory   
H.B.R.CustomerCanadaHudson Bay Railway  McD, p158
H.G.CO.ManufacturerU.S.A.Hemingray Glass Company18831910McD, p64
HAMILTONManufacturerCanadaHamilton Glass Company18801891McD, p156
HARLOEManufacturerU.S.A.Harloe19021906McD, p108
HAWLEYManufacturerU.S.A.Harloe19021906McD, p108
HEMINGRAYManufacturerU.S.A.Hemingray Glass Company18651970McD, p64
JEFFREY MFG.CO.Supply HouseU.S.A.Probably produced by Hemingray   
JOHNSON & WATSONStyleU.S.A.Johnson & Watson1908  
JUMBOStyleU.S.A.Produced by Brookfield, possibly Oakman, possibly Hemingray too.   
KUnknownU.S.A.Possibly Knowles   
K.C.G.W.ManufacturerU.S.A.King City Glass Works18901897McD, p104
KERRManufacturerU.S.A.Kerr19691975McD, p142
KIMBLETrade NameU.S.A.Produced by Hemingray19521970McD, p79
KNAPP U.S.A.    
KNOWLESSupply HouseU.S.A.Knowles19001903McD, p62
L.G.T.& CO.Supply HouseU.S.A.Luther G. Tillotson & Company. Probably produced by Brookfield.   
LAWRENCE GRAYManufacturerU.S.A.Possibly a small glassworks set up by Gray himself, possibly produced by him at a larger glass house.   
LIQUID INSULATORStyleU.S.A.Liquid Insulator   
LOCKESupply HouseU.S.A.Manufactured by Brookfield mostly, some by Hemingray, plus there's a few that were produced by Locke himself, possibly at Corning. Locke wasn't really a ""supply house"" in the traditional sense.18921914McD, p126
LOWEXTrade NameU.S.A.Produced by Hemingray19331970 
LYNCHBURGManufacturerU.S.A.Lynchburg19231925McD, p116
M.& E.CO.Supply HouseU.S.A.Mayer & Englund Company, a supply house in Philadelphia   
M.T.CO.CustomerCanadaMontreal Telegraph Company   
MAYDWELLSupply HouseU.S.A.Maydwell & Hartzell. The insulators were produced by Crystallite Glass Company after McLaughlin went out of business.19351940McD, p94
McLAUGHLINManufacturerU.S.A.McLaughlin19251935McD, p92
MERSHONStyleU.S.A.Probably produced by Brookfield and others.   
MIN COMCustomerCuba    
MINE INSULATORStyleU.S.A.Possibly Hemingray   
MONTREALCustomerCanadaMontreal Telegraph Company   
N de MCustomerMexicoMexican National. Ferrocarriles nacionales de Mexico.   
N.E.G.M.CO.ManufacturerU.S.A.New England Glass Manufacturing Company18991899McD, p55
N.W.& B.I.T.CO.CustomerCanadaNew Westminster and Burard Inlet Telephone Company  McD, p151
NATIONAL INSULATOR CO.ManufacturerU.S.A.Probably produced at Iron City Glass Works18841886McD, p49
NEW ENG.TEL.& TEL.CO.CustomerU.S.A.New England Telphone & Telegraph Company1883 McD, p150
NO EMBOSSINGUnknownU.S.A.No Embossing   
NO EMBOSSING - CANADAUnknownCanadaNo Embossing - Canada   
NO EMBOSSING - MEXICOUnknownMexicoNo Embossing - Mexico   
NO NAMEUnknownU.S.A.No Name   
NO NAME - CANADAUnknownCanadaNo Name - Canada   
NO NAME - MEXICOUnknownMexicoNo Name - Mexico   
O.V.G.CO.ManufacturerU.S.A.Ohio Valley Glass Company19031905McD, p104
OAKMAN MFG.CO.ManufacturerU.S.A.Oakman Manufacturing Company18901897McD, p39
OWENS ILLINOISManufacturerU.S.A.Owens-Illinois, aka Hemingray  McD, p79
P & WUnknownU.S.A.Apparently by Beaver Falls Glass Company   
P.L.W.CustomerU.S.A.Brookfield production - Pennsylvania Lines West   
P.R.R.CustomerU.S.A.Brookfield production - Pennsylvania Railroad   
P.S.S.A.UnknownMexicoPossibly a supply house -- perhaps Patricio Sordo S.A.   
PAISLEYManufacturerU.S.A.S. T. Paisley, possibly Beaver Falls Glass Works.   
PAT APP FORUnknownU.S.A.Patent Applied For   
PATENT - DEC. 19, 1871ManufacturerU.S.A.Hemingray Glass Company1871  
PATENT - OTHERUnknownU.S.A.Patent - Other   
PETTINGELL ANDREWSSupply HouseU.S.A.Produced by Pennycuick1888~1900McD, p57
POSTALCustomerU.S.A.Postal Telegraph Company. Produced by Brookfield, Hemingray, California, possibly Denver companies too 1943 
PRISMSupply HouseU.S.A.Produced by Novelty Glass Works in NJ for Knowles19021903McD, p62
PYREXTrade NameU.S.A.Corning Glass Works.19241941McD, p129
R.Y T.UnknownMexicoRYT   
S.B.T.& T.CO.CustomerU.S.A.Southern Bell Tel & Tel18851910McD, p151
S.F.UnknownU.S.A.Possibly San Francisco? Commonly found in the midwest though   
S.S.& CO.Supply HouseU.S.A.Shay, Stephens & Company. Chicago, probably Hemingray manufactured.18891890CJ, 12/1993, p.7
SANTA ANAStyleU.S.A.Produced by California and Hemingray; Brookfield ones don't say ""Santa Ana""   
SEILERSSupply HouseU.S.A.Supply house, also Paul Seiler was the patent holder. Produced by Hemingray  McD, p88
SO.MASS.TEL.CO.CustomerU.S.A.Southern Massachusetts Telephone Company18901910McD, p151
ST.LOUIS MALLEABLEUnknownU.S.A.St Louis Malleable   
STANDARD GLASS INSULATOR CO.ManufacturerU.S.A.Standard Glass Insulator Company18931894McD, p53
STARSupply HouseU.S.A.Distributed by GE and produced by Hemingray, Brookfield, NEGM, and possibly others.18921907McD, p145
STERLINGManufacturerU.S.A.Sterling19021907McD, p122
SURGETrade NameU.S.A.Trade name used by Babson Brothers. According to Woodward, produced by Hemingray. According to Kevin Lawless's research and a letter from an old-timer at Babson, they were produced by Corning. The "TM Reg US Pat Off" embossing seems more consistent with Corning production. Others report unopened boxes of Surges have the Owens-Illinois logo Hemingray). So the jury's still out.19451955McD, p102
T.C.R.CustomerCanadaTranscontinental Railway19031913McD, p158
TEL.FED.MEX.CustomerMexicoTelgrafos Federales Mexicanos   
TELEGRAFOS NACIONALESCustomerMexicoTelegrafos Nacionales   
T-H.Supply HouseU.S.A.Thompson Houston Electric Company18831892 
T-H.E.CO.Supply HouseU.S.A.Thompson Houston Electric Company18831892McD, p60
TILLOTSON & CO.Supply HouseU.S.A.probably some are by Brookfield   
TWO PIECE TRANSPOSITIONStyleU.S.A.Two Piece Transposition   
U.S.TEL.CO.CustomerU.S.A.United States Telegraph Company18981914McD, p151
V.B.ManufacturerMexicoprobably manufacturer, mexican. Vidriera is spanish for ""glass house"", so that could be what the V stands for   
W.E.MFG.CO.ManufacturerU.S.A.WE Mfg Co   
W.F.G.CO.ManufacturerU.S.A.Western Flint Glass Company18991900McD, p95
W.G.M.CO.ManufacturerU.S.A.Western Glass Manufacturing Company19001909McD, p95
W.U.CustomerU.S.A.Western Union   
WESTINGHOUSEManufacturerU.S.A.While Westinghouse was a supply house, they actually purchased their own glass factory and ran it for a few years. So this would be a manufacturer.18861898McD, p147
WHITALL TATUMManufacturerU.S.A.Whitall Tatum19221946McD, p133


  • [McD] McDougald, John & Carol (1990). Insulators A History and Guide to North American Glass Pintype Insulators.
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